Рефераты, курсовые работы, дипломы. География, экономическая география. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia



INTRODUCTION                                                                                                                     1


1.    THE RUSSIAN-KAZAKHSTAN RATIOES AT THE PRESENT STAGE        5                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

1.1 Mutual Trade                                                                                                       8


1.2 Cooperating in oil gas and power                                                                       15        

1.3 Cooperating in sphere of transport and communication                                    18




2.1 Some aspects of economic interaction Kazakhstan and Russia                        22


2.2 The factors of economic interaction of Kazakhstan and Russia                       24

2.3 Engaging the foreign investments                                                                                 26         

2.4 Cooperating in the field of electric power industry                                          27         

2.5 Cooperating in the field of machine construction industry                               28         

2.6 Cooperating in the field of a uranium industry                                                 29         


3.    involvement in international organizations,                                 kazakhstan and russia                                                                            31


3.1 The Eurasian Union: Realities and Perspectives                                               34         


CONCLUSION                                                                                                             61         

LIST OF USED SOURSES                                                                                         65          INTRODUCTION

The origins of Kazakhstani-Russian relations lie in hoary antiquity, when Kazakhs and Russians lived on the vast Eur-asian territory and, being neighbors, developed good-neigh-borly relations in all the spheres of human activity.

In analyzing the relations between Rus and the Great Steppe, one cannot fail to mention the work of the greatest specialist in this field, Lev N. Gumilyov. In his preface to Gumilyov's book, Ancient Rus and the Great Steppe, Academi-cian Dmitry S. Likhachev wrote this: Rightly taking into account the links between subsistence economy and the level of prosperity of ancient societies, and thus their military pow-er, the author also compares historical events and climactic fluctuations of the steppe zone of Eurasia. In this way he ar-rived at a series of clarifications, which enabled him to describe in detail the historical-geographic backdrop against which var-ious cultural influences came in conflict with the local forms of the original culture of Eastern Europe.

It must be noted in any analysis of the emergence of the 15 new, post-Soviet states on the map of Eurasia that certain specific features marked the gen-esis of each of them. The present study focuses on the processes of sovereignty of Kazakhstan, and the specificity of these processes lies in that from the very beginning the republic's political leadership did not initiate centrifugal tendencies, regarding reasonable integration an imperative of the times and endeavoring to ease as much as possible the destructive consequences at every stage in the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last former Soviet republic to declare its independence - not out of any strong gravitation toward the past or peripheral political development let us recall that Kazakhstan was one of the first to experience, in December 1986, the repressive pow-er of totalitarianism then already withering away but because it understood that artificial acceleration of this process is fraught with the danger of serious upheavals. The history of numerous bloody ethnic, social, and even interstate conflicts in the post-Soviet space bears striking evidence of that.

The immediate subject matter of the present study is not just the isolated process of the sovereignty of one of the post-Soviet countries but the emergence and development against this background of new interstate relations of two major re-publics of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan and Russia. In our view, it is relations between precisely these two countries that can be seen as a model for the establishment of equal and mutually advantageous between newly independent states. This view is borne out by a sufficiently smooth and planned, though far from problem-free, development of bilateral Kaza-khstani-Russian relations, a meaningful historical tradition of mutual relations, and an absence of sharp turns or wavering due to subjective or external causes.

Another unifying factor is time-the many centuries of the history of mutual relations between the peoples of the two countries that have been neighbors in these great open spaces since the beginning of time. This far from simple history, full of drama and heroism, these strata of time bound together by the unremitting toil of numerous generations, unite the two peoples.

The Soviet period in the relations between the two states let us recall that, according to the 1977 Constitution of the USSR, the constituent republics of the Soviet Union were declared to be "sovereign Soviet socialist states" united in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and having the right to enter into relations with foreign states, conclude treaties and exchange diplomatic representatives, and - theoretically -secede from the USSR was marked by the prevalence of the so-called converted forms. The ubiquitous and all-round dominance of All-Union structures made meaningless all talk of real interstate relations between Kazakhstan and Russia. Both sides were in this case the objects of a grandiose social experi-ment. Although positive achievements of tills period cannot be discarded either.

The emergence and further development of relations of equal partnership between new independent states, the Repub-lic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, became a sort of synthesis of the entire centuries-old history of Kazakh-Russian relations. Only now can the relations between the two countries be justifiably described as subject-subject ones. At this stage, both states solved such problems as defining their status in the system of world politics, establishing relations with leading world nations, and entering the field of international law.

The dominant role of Kazakhstani problems has deter-mined the chronological framework of the investigation.

The overall time frame covers the period from December 1991 the setting up of the Commonwealth of Independent States, which finally marked the disintegration of the USSR to the end of 1995.

In the four years, bilateral Kazakhstani - Russian rela-tions went through a series of significant stages the study of which can adequately determine the level of mutual relations between the two countries, the scope and range of integration. We single out three stages in the development of Kazakhstani-Russian relations:

- Defining the legal interstate relations of the two coun-tries December 1991 - May 1920

- Searching for a model of economic and political coop-eration between the states May 1992 - March 1994

- Expanding and deepening integration between Kaza-khstan and Russia in the economic and other spheres March 1994 - 1995.

Although some elements of legal contractual relations between Kazakhstan and Russia may be discovered before De-cember 1991, when attempts to preserve the Soviet Union were made, it will be more chronologically correct, in our view, to choose the moment at which the CIS was legally formed and the activity of the Union structures of authority was discontinued as the starting point of the study.

We propose that the signing in May 1992 of the treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance between the two countries be singled out as the concluding moment of the first stage in the relations between Kazakhstan and Russia and at the same time as the beginning of the new stage. That doc-ument became the foundation for qualitatively new relations in the history of the two states, opening the first page in the official interstate relations in the new history of Kazakhstan and Russia. It determined the principles of bilateral relations in the political, economic, military-strategic, cultural, and spir-itual spheres, lending a colossal impulse to the entire subse-quent negotiation process.

During the search for a model of interstate economic and political cooperation between Kazakhstan and Russia, the prin-ciples were developed for bilateral relations, which were later recorded in the treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance. The first official visit of President Nazarbayev of Kaza-khstan to the Russian Federation in March 1994 marked the beginning of the third stage in the development of Kazakh-stani-Russian relations - that of expanding and deepening in-tegration between Kazakhstan and Russia.

This division of the time frame of bilateral Kazakhstani-Russian relations into periods shows that one of the goals of the present work is to demonstrate continuous development between Kazakhstan and Russia in the post-Soviet period.

As the period of political history analyzed here is ex-tremely close to the present, it cannot be regarded as worked out in detail in Russian and foreign scientific literature. How-ever, the problems of development of the new statehood of post-Soviet countries of Kazakhstan in this case, of the birth and evolution of interstate relations, of their entry into the international community, are being studied ever more actively.

The crucial period of the disintegration of the USSR and the emergence on the map of the world of new, independent states was primarily reflected in scientific periodicals. Special mention should be made of the collective work The New Treaty of Union: The Search for Solutions.

Problems of mutual relations between newly independent states have also become the subjects of attention of Russian experts and political scientists. The period of disintegration of the USSR and of the development of Kazakhstan as a sovereign independent state are at present actively studied by Kazakhstan scientists. Works have been written on the problem of the emergence of the new statehood, development of the system of separation of powers, democratization of society, evolution of party structures and institutions of democracy, and the construction of a new legal and judicial system. Present State and Works on the subject of bilateral Kazakhstani-Russian relations from the moment the two states achieved indepen-dence can be divided into several groups. The first and the most numerous one deal with relations between Kazakhstan and Russia within the framework of the Commonwealth of In-dependent States.

In recent years the development of market relations has considerably boosted interest for economic and trade cooper-ation between the two independent states. Mention must be made of a joint work by the staff of the Russian Institute for Strategic Studies under the title Kazakh-stan: Realities and Perspectives of Independent Development, It should be noted, though, that this work suffers from an obvi-ously incomplete documentary and factual basis and a certain superficiality in the analysis of the problem.

The study


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